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stores, etc. Method of Chemical Analysis. Dr. Lederle said chemical analysis of milk was most delicate work, and must be done by a trained analytical chemist. Even- step must be watched and noted. viagra should buy The first thing was to see that an average sample was taken. For this purpose the milk must not be acid, else there would be more or less separation of casein ; it must not be churned, yet the cream must be fairly incorporated, which was effected by a dozen reversions of the bottle without violent action. Five cubic centimetres were taken up in a pipette and allowed to run into a small flat dish of lead and tin or of platinum, the platinum dish being used when it was intended to test for ash, which required the application of heat. In testing for cream and solids, the dish was placed on a water bath and after evaporation the residue represented the total solids. Of course the weight of the dish, of the milk, and of the difference after evaporation was carefully ascertained. The solids consisted of two parts, fat and solids not fat, such as viagra should buy casein, viagra should buy albumin, milk sugar, and salts. After the water bath came the air bath, temperature not below ioo Q F. nor above 105 F. In New York the law called for total solids 12 per cent., but it should be higher, as required by some States. At this season of the year it should be 12.5 or 13 per 102 MEDICAL RECORD. [January i8, 1896 cent. If it were now desired to determine the amount of ash, the solids just obtained were subjected to a low red heat. The average amount should be 0.75 per cent., rarely falling below 0.7 or rising above 0.8. The addition of water would reduce the proportion of salts, the addition of solids would increase it. The latter was especially true if carbonates were added. If they found increased amount of salts and on adding a strong acic' the milk effervesced it showed adulteration by addition of carbonates, for these were not natural to milk. The viagra should buy test for fats was a delicate one, and was carried out by placing the milk, absorbed in a piece of blot- ting paper, over boiling ether, all, including siphon, enclosed in a glass apparatus. The vapor of ether dissolved and extracted the brand viagra i fat. The percentage of butter fat required by brand viagra i the law of this city was only 3 per cent.; it should be 3.5 or 4 per cent. The fact that the standard was so low was an inducement to adulteration. Value of the Lactometer. This instrument was a form of hygrometer, intended to test the specific grav- ity of milk as compared with that of water water represented by 100, milk should not fall below 102 ; if it fell to 90 it indicated 10 parts water, if to 75 it in- dicated 25 parts water. A fair sample must be ob- tained, and the lactometer must not be dropped into it, but allowed to gently settle until it floated. Re- moval of cream increased the specific gravity; addition of water decreased the specific gravity. For this reason the instrument had been severely criticised, but there was not the least necessity for being deceived by these facts. If cream werS taken away, thereby increasing the specific gravity, less fat would adhere to the instrument, which would come away viagra should buy cleaner, without the white color of normal milk. If, further, water were added to raise the specific gravity, these points would become more striking, so that no tyro would hesitate in saying the milk was adulterated. In using the lactometer one was not required to shut out his senses and judgment. The lactoscope was used for estimating the amount of butter fat contained in the milk, being constructed on the principle that pure milk was less transparent than watered milk. Then came an optical test, watered milk looking blue, rich milk brand viagra i looking white. The Centrifugal Machine. A most important in- strument for rapid measurement of the fat of milk was the centrifugal machine, brand viagra i the health office making use of a Danish model, while that most employed in this country was the Babcock. By the one shown twenty samples could be tested at once, and only about ten minutes' running of the machine was required. It was viagra should buy a much quicker test than the analytical, was suf- ficiently accurate, and was accepted in the courts of some States, but as yet not in New Yoik. The Significance of Micro-Organisms in Milk. Dr. Rowland G. brand viagra i Freeman read a brief paper bearing this title. Sterile milk could be obtained from the healthy udder by the introduction of a sterile catheter. Bacteriological examination of milk furnished this city showed it teeming with micro-organisms, number- ing from hundreds of thousands to millions to the cubic centimetre. They could be classed as patho- genic and as non-pathogenic. The non-pathogenic, however, had a deleterious influence in hastening fer- mentation and perhaps in producing diarrhoeal and other troubles. viagra should buy They got into the milk from the hair of the cow, the udder, the hands of the milkman, brand viagra i the dust about stables, from unclean pails. In other words, the reason why our city milk contained so many germs was that it viagra should buy came from dirty cows, kept in dirty barns, milked by dirty men, the milk transported in dirty vessels, churned for hours or days by the motion of cars and wagons, during which time the germs multiplied. When the milk was drawn by a clean method, cooled rapidly, and delivered within twelve hours, it usually contained only one viagra should buy hundred thousand bacteria, contrasted with millions in the other case. The same methods which favored contamination with non-pathogenic bacteria acted in the case of the brand viagra i