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conjunctiva. For this purpose buy viagra pro the eyes of twentv old people, ten children, and forty-six young adults brand viagra levitra were examined. Thirty-three per cent, of the tubes from young adults were sterile; thirty per cent, of the tubes from old people were sterile; fifty per cent, of the tubes from children were sterile. The percentage of sterile tubes from adults and old people was about the same, while there seemed to be somewhat less infec- tion in children's eyes. Cultures were also buy viagra pro made from the conjunctiva as soon brand viagra levitra as possible after rising in the morning and again at evening. The eyes of eighteen brand viagra levitra persons were exam- ined in the morning soon after rising and the same rves were examined again at night. In this wav it was found that of the morning tubes only two were buy viagra pro sterile, while of the night tubes nine were sterile. It would seem probable, then, that the natural cleansing of the eye by the lachrymal secretion is more efficient during waking hours. An attempt was then made to brand viagra levitra sterilize the eyes of six patients. The process of sterilization consisted merely in washing the eye, ir? three cases with boric acid (one drachm to one ounce) and in three other cases with bichloride of mercury, 1 to 5,000. After cleansing, the eyes were bandaged with steri- lized cotton for twenty-four hours. The bandages were then taken off and cultures made from the conjunc- tivae. Of the three eyes washed with boric acid, all tubes brand viagra levitra showed colonies which were nearly all of the staphy- lococcus albus. Of the tubes obtained from those eyes washed with bichloride, one was sterile and the other two infected. The colonies present in these cases were also buy viagra pro of the staphylococcus albus. Thus, in an attempt to brand viagra levitra sterilize the conjunctiva- in six cases, onlv one case proved successful. Inasmuch as a certain proportion of tubes remain sterile after inoculation from the normal conjunctiva without sterilization, it seems doubtful whether the at- brand viagra levitra tempted sterilization was of any value at all. Bach's results were somewhat more favorable than mine, he rendering sixteen cases sterile out of forty-two at- tempts. Washing the conjunctiva cannot be depended on as a means of sterilization. A boric-acid washing probably has no more value than washing with steri- lized salt solution. The process is merely a mechani- cal cleansing, and not a sterilization with a germici- dal fluid. Inasmuch buy viagra pro as the orifices of the Meibomian glands and the edges of the lids are fruitful sources of infection to the conjunctiva^, these especially should receive a cleansing either mechanical or germicidal before an operation. Dressings over the eye furnish the necessary heat and moisture for bacterial growth. To determine how- far an brand viagra levitra aseptic dressing placed over the eye affords a good breeding-place for bacteria, twenty dressings were examined. Nine of these came from eyes that had been operated on and eleven from eyes that had not been operated on, but had been merely bandaged with brand viagra levitra sterilized dressings for twenty-four hours. All 766 MEDICAL RECORD. [May 30, 1896 of these dressings contained large numbers of bac- teria. Those in the dressings from the operated eyes differed little in respect to the number and kind of bacteria from those in the non-operated eyes. The staphylococcus albus was present in thirteen dressings in large numbers, and in four of the dressings the au- reus was also found in considerable numbers; yet in none of the operated eyes was there any suppuration after the operation. The aureus was present in three of the bandages from operated eyes and in one of the bandages from non-operated eyes. Aseptic dressings should be applied only where the wound or area of application is aseptic. Antiseptic dressings would seem better to use over the eyes, as the dressings are applied to an infected area. Incidentally, while making these examinations, cul- tures were also made from six cases of phlyctenular conjunctivitis, three cases of catarrhal conjunctivitis, and four cases of ulcerative keratitis. Three tubes from the cases of phlyctenular conjunctivitis were sterile, possibly because the cases were in the later stages of the disease. The three remaining tubes gave pure cultures of the staphylococcus aureus. Of the cases of catarrhal conjunctivitis, one showed a few bacilli of a kind not identified, one was sterile, and one gave a culture of Fraenkel's diplococcus. Of the four cases of ulcerative keratitis, tubes from three were sterile. Cultures of the staphylococcus albus developed in the remaining one. BACTERIA AND OPHTHALMIC SURGERY. 1 By F. M. WILSl >X, M.D., BRIDGEPORT, CONN. The relation of bacteria to operative eye work is a question which none of us can avoid. Not only are bacteria in the air, but facts and theories about them are " in the air" also, and this question is too practical to be ignored. The introduction of bacterial theories into surgical practice more than twenty years ago found ophthalmic surgeons standing upon the vantage ground of success- ful operative work, a position not favorable for the ac- ceptance of new theories of any sort. In addition to this, the early antibacterial measures were of so irri-