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Eighty years ago Colles formulated the law which bears his name: "A child born of a mother who is without any obvious symptoms, and which, with- out being exposed to any infection subsequent to its birth, shows the disease when a few weeks old, this infant will infect the most healthy nurse, whether she suckle it, or merely handle and dress it, and yet this child is never known to infect its own mother, even though she suckle it while it has venereal ulcers of the lip ranbaxy generic viagra and tongue." In 1865 Profeta made the statement which has since been known as Profeta's Law: "A healthy child born of a syphilitic mother could be suckled by her or a syphilitic wet-nurse with impunity." For many years these oracular expressions went unchallenged. Coupled with the fact that florid syphilis in the pregnant woman was a frequent cause of abortion and still-birth they represented July 7, 1917 J MEDICAL RECORD. 17 practically about all we knew concerning the dis- ease in its relation to childbearing. Since the dis- covery of the ranbaxy generic viagra Spirochetes pallida and the introduc- tion of the Wassermann test we know the raison d'etre of these buy viagra scams laws and accordingly have grave doubts as to their verity. Since 1905 the literature on the subject has been voluminous, not to say con- fusing. But now, out of this mass of conflicting opinions, certain facts have been established which enable us to reach conclusions resting upon a scien- tific basis. It is my purpose in this communication to present these facts. The Wassermann test has allowed us to arrive at buy viagra scams a much clearer insight as to the incidence of syphilis than heretofore. We have learned that it is present, especially in a masked form, much more frequently than was supposed. We have also been made aware that absolute dependence cannot be placed on a sero- logical reaction in diagnosing syphilis either in the pregnant woman or her child. I have not space to go into detail why this is so; indeed, authorities are still divided as to the reasons. Only, I might add in passing, that all women, whether pregnant buy viagra scams or not, are more or less aberrant to the Wassermann re- action. We can affirm too, which was formerly de- nied, that paternal infection can and does occur, buy viagra scams al- though rather infrequently. The peculiarity which the pregnant woman af- fects toward the Wassermann is shown in other ways that are still more puzzling. In pregnant or parturient women the milk may react positively and yet syphilis may not be present; the reaction however is not marked — one or two plus. Scarlet fever occurring during pregnancy will give rise to a positive reaction, also in carcinoma and puerperal sepsis. Patients with eclampsia always give a strongly positive reaction. The condition known as latent maternal syphilis — where syphilitic sperma- tozoids exist in the woman's genital tract — not only creates an immunity to the disease but also against a positive Wassermann because these women not only have antigens in their breast milk but in their blood serum as well. These women may remain in good health indefinitely and yet convey syphilis to their offspring through the ovum, decidua or placenta. Numerous observers have found buy viagra scams that not much reliance can be placed in blood for a Wassermann taken from the umbilical cord. While it is undoubt- edly wise to do so as a matter of routine, yet the most absolute test is to search for the Spirochxta pallida in the cord itself. The organism should be looked for in the walls of the vein and the buy viagra scams connec- tive tissue stroma. In a suspected case a section of ranbaxy generic viagra the cord should be preserved in buy viagra scams a formalin or Ringer's solution and later examined by a bacteri- ologist. Examination of the placenta is not so re- liable, as it not infrequently happens that the spirochete cannot be found in the placental tissues, although the woman is patently syphilitic. Usually, however, they can be found and when present indi- cate not buy viagra scams so much the presence of syphilis in the mother as its existence in an active form in the child. As strongly presumptive evidence of this is the fact that ranbaxy generic viagra the organisms when found are always on the fetal side of the placenta. This is especially interesting because latent syphilis in the mother is undoubtedly derived from an infected fetus. The organisms may lie dormant for an indefinite period and after the woman has borne several healthy chil- dren she may develop the disease. It can thus be assumed with almost complete certainty that infec- tion of the mother occurs through the fetus by way ranbaxy generic viagra of the umbilical vein or the ruptured vessels of the chorionic villi. The antigens thus formed allow the mother to nurse her syphilitic child. If these anti- gens cannot be found in her milk she cannot nurse her child without grave danger of becoming infect- ed herself. Should the mother be syphilitic and the child proven to be healthy, then the child should be fed artificially. The latter part of this last paragraph naturally brings us to the discussion of Colles' and Profeta's laws. From what has been already stated the reader can readily infer that these laws ranbaxy generic viagra are no longer accepted. The explanation of the buy viagra scams apparently buy viagra scams healthy mother nursing her syphilitic child, is to be found in the latent syphilis and the antigens in her milk. The same is true of the apparently healthy child suckling from the syphilitic mother. It is a latent syphilitic. We know now that it is the fetus which conveys the disease and that no woman can