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We are here brought on to the old scientific ground of contention between the schools of Paris and of Nancy, into which it is impossible for us to enter. Both Char- cot and Bernheim, the chiefs of the two schools, have divided hypnotism into different states or conditions, Bernheim viagra medication price into 'nine and Charcot into three. As they are essentially the same, we will give Charcot's divi- sion, as being more concise; also the rules for the ap- plication of hypnotism, as upon this point they really agree. The first is the lethargic state. It is obtained either by the fixation of an object or by pressing gently 754 MEDICAL RECORD. [May 23, 1896 upon the eyeballs through the lowered lids. The leth- argy thus obtained is characterized by the appearance of a deep sleep, muscular relaxation, anaesthesia, often complete, with abolition of the intellectual life. In this state suggestions are impossible. There exists a muscular hyperexcitability and contractions are read- ily obtained by slight pressure or friction. The sec- ond is the cataleptic state. In order to make a subject pass from the first to the second state, it is sufficient to raise the eyelids. If only one eye is open that side only enters into catalepsy, the other remain- ing in lethargy. The cataleptic remains fixed in every attitude given to him or her; the muscular hyperex- citability has disappeared. In this stage viagra medication price suggestions can be produced in the muscular sense; for instance, if the hand of the subject is approached to the lips as if to send a kiss, the face becomes smiling; if the hands are joined together as if in prayer, the subject kneels. viagra medication price By viagra medication price a retrograde process it is possible to pass the sub- ject back again from the cataleptic to the lethargic state by closing the eyelids. generic viagra equivalent Finally, this state can be produced at once and directly, without the primary lethargic period, under the influence of nervous shock caused by an intense viagra medication price light or violent noise. The third is the somnambulistic state. This also can be produced primitively by fixation of the look or by different procedures. Lethargy or catalepsy can be transformed into somnambulism by exercising gentle or prolonged and repeated frictions on the vertex of subjects. This state is characterized by an habitual anaesthesia more or less decided, by a sensorial acuity, and above all, because the subject is essentially ame- nable to all suggestions, the neuromuscular excita- bility no longer exists. This state can also by a retro- grade process be transferred back to the cataleptic state by opening the eyes of the subject, or into lethargy by closing them and compressing mildly the eyeballs. These three stages comprize what is called the grand hj pnotism or the grand hypnotic neurosis. In dealing with so dangerous a viagra medication price therapeutical meas- ure as hypnotism dangerous morally and physically in viagra medication price almost every respect the physician, in order generic viagra equivalent to safeguard his conscience and professional honor, ought to adhere strictly to the following rules: 1. Never put to sleep any patient generic viagra equivalent without his or her formal consent or the consent of those having au- thority over them. 2. Never provoke hypnotic sleep except in presence of an authorized person father, husband, brother, etc. who guarantees the hypnotizer and the hypnotized. 3. Never give to the subject without consent other suggestions than those necessary for the cure. The physician should limit himself to therapeutic sugges- tion only. Dr. Berillon, medical inspector of the public lunatic asylums and director of the Revue de ''Hypnotism,-, has begun a course of lectures at the practical school of the Faculty of Medicine on generic viagra equivalent the clinical applications, psychological and medico-legal, of hypnotism, and will continue them during the summer semester on Tues- days .mil Saturdays. The Sorirtc d'Hypnologie is always actively at work on the subject, and just now especially so. The nexl upon is looked forward to with much in- terest. What with the increase in the use of hypno- tism by the profession at large, the many books and pamphlets on somnambulism and clairvoyance, theat- rical pieces representing the same, to say nothing of the daily newspapers and all kinds of seances in pri- vate houses among the laity ami spiritualistic ama- generic viagra equivalent teurs, the jam satis est has been reached. If these facts are coupled with the alarming increase in the number of cataleptics admitted into the hospitals, it will be seen how vast are the proportions of the hyp- notic wave that is sweeping over Paris. Another therapeutic method that is not likely to- suffer for want of use is seropathy. Dr. Toulouse conceived the idea that the serum of an animal deeply alcoholized might have a happy ac- tion in the treatment of human alcoholism. Let us hope that his viagra medication price novel experiment may prove of some value in diminishing this ever-increasing evil. Dr. Toulouse made two dogs absorb forty grams, or about one and one-third ounces, of ethylic alcohol every day for one week. After this he bled them and gathered their serum, which he employed in a case of acute alcoholic delirium, with tremor, profuse sweats, and violent hallucinations. Three times in twenty- four hours he injected twenty-four cubic centimetres (thirty viagra medication price cubic centimetres representing an ounce). The next day, eighteen hours after his first generic viagra equivalent injection, the fever fell and the patient became calm and lucid. The case, of course, is only an experiment, but as