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which cannot be entirely explained by the advanced age of the workers in these occupations. Lobar pneumonia appears to be a risk in two classes of occupations; first, in those in which the workers are grouped together in shops and offices; secondly, in those occupations where the workers are buy viagra bangladesh exposed to continuous variations of temperature. With re- gard to suicide, only among cigarmakers and saloon keepers does the percentage rise above four. The administrative measures suggested by these studiers are, in the opinion of the writers: first, a crusade against pulmonary tuberculosis and the respiratory diseases among clerks, compositors, and similar groups, and a more extensive study of the causes of the high mortality from pulmonary tuber- culosis among teamsters and drivers; secondly, a widespread effort to control the incidence of heart â– disease among garment workers and cigarmakers, and in the third place, a campaign against the abuse of alcohol. Although the writers of the paper confess that their method of tabulating the instances of buy viagra bangladesh the influence of occupation upon mortality is far from perfect, yet they feel that it is a long step buy viagra bangladesh in the right direction. Consequently, it is their viagra alternative usa intention to carry on their investigations, and in a subse- quent report they hope to include all the principal occupations in which the people of New York City are engaged, and instead of limiting their study to the mortality of one calendar year to combine the statistics of death for a period of years in order that their tabulations may be less subject to frequent fluctuations due to the small number of deaths under observation. INSECTS AND INFANTILE PARALYSIS. It is somewhat extraordinary that it is only within the past twenty years or so that the conveyance of disease by means of insects has been demonstrated. It is true that in 1889, Theobald Smith found out the causative organism of Texas cattle fever, and that together with R. L. Kilbourne he showed that the organism was carried from Southern cattle to non-immune cattle by the so-called Southern cattle tick. Really, however, Manson was the pioneer in this field viagra alternative usa of research, for before the discovery made by Smith he had demonstrated the conveyance of the parasitic worm Filaria nocturna by mosquitos to man. The discovery that opened the eyes of scientific and medical men to the significance of insects in the transmission of disease was that of Ronald Ross and a number of the Italian investi- gators who found that malaria was carried by a species of buy viagra bangladesh mosquito. L. 0. Howard of the Bureau of Entomology, in his address as retiring buy viagra bangladesh president of the Washing- ton Academy of Sciences, delivered on February 1, 1917, and published in the journal of the society, drew attention to the above facts, and in the course of his address gave his views with regard to the theory put forward by several scientific members of the medical profession that poliomyelitis was transmitted by insects. He pointed out that the entire country was interested and alarmed at the occurrence of an unusual number of cases of infan- tile paralysis during the past summer, and that manv theories were advanced concerning its mode of transmission. He himself, when it was an- nounced that the causative organism had been found in the intestinal passages, as well as elsewhere, and that it probably entered the body through the mu- cous membrane of the mouth and nose, instantly thought of the house fly and the all too frequent contamination of exposed food by this insect fre- quently fresh from intestinal discharges. But sec- ond thoughts convinced him that buy viagra bangladesh were such a method of conveyance of the disease possible, the disease itself would be much more common. Moreover, the not infrequent winter cases could not very well buy viagra bangladesh be fly-borne. Mosquitos have been suggested as carriers, and the rat flea has been laid under suspicion. But rat fleas go to human beings only in the event of epidemic disease among rats, and nothing of the sort has been observed in con- nection with any of the larger epidemics of polio- myelitis. Furthermore, in inoculation viagra alternative usa experiments reported by Flexner and Lewis, the virus was shown to be present in the blood in such high dilution that the infection in a normal animal was accom- plished only by inoculation of 20 c.c. or more of the blood. If this holds good under normal condi- tions, it would be absurd to accuse any biting insect of conveying this particular disease, except in the possible event buy viagra bangladesh of the development of the organism in the viagra alternative usa body of the insect. While the possibility should be studied, the probabilities are against it. The study of diseases carried by insects has opened an immense field of research, and one that has been assiduously cultivated, with results of in- calculable benefit viagra alternative usa to the world. It is known that in- sects are responsible for the spread of many mala- buy viagra bangladesh dies, but not of all, and at the present time they are perhaps often unjustly accused. 28 MEDICAL RECORD. [July 7, 1917 THE PREVENTION OF MEASLES. While the mortality from measles among the abo- rigines when buy viagra bangladesh once introduced among them is so high that whole communities are wiped out by it,