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stated meeting of the Philadelphia County Medical Society on May 13th, Dr. Silas Updegrove read a pa- per on "'The Necessity for the State viagra thailand online viagra thailand online to Demand the Adoption by the Colleges of a More Uniform Stand- ard of Educational Requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine." Dr. J. Solis-Cohen exhibited a tongue-depressor, by means of which the interior of the larynx and trachea can be inspected directly with- out the aid of a viagra thailand online laryngoscopic mirror. By invitation of the directors Dr. B. Alexander Randall demon- strated by means of lantern views the " Surgical Anat- omy and Pathology of the Mastoid." May 30, 1896] MEDICAL RECORD. 765 BACTERIOLOGY OF THE NORMAL CON- JUNCTIVA. 1 By CHARLES J. FOOTE, M.D., HEW ffAVEN, com;. The object of reporting the few bacteriological ex- periments which are recorded below will be better understood if they are taken in connection with and as supplementary to the paper of Dr. viagra buying cheap Wilson. Our purpose in making the experiments was, if pos- sible, to throw some light on the causes of suppura- tion after cataract extraction. Our method of examination consisted in smearing over the surface of a slant tube of agar a particle of conjunctival secretion which had been removed with a sterilized cotton swab or a loop of platinum wire. Agar was used as a culture medium, because we de- sired to study only those bacteria viagra buying cheap which grow at 37" C. After sowing the agar tubes they were kept in the incubator for several days at a temperature of 37 ('. According to this method ninety-two eyes were exam- ined, one tube culture being made from each eye. Of these ninety-two tubes, fifty-three showed one or more colonies of bacteria, while the rest of the tubes (thirty-nine) were sterile. By this I do not mean to imply that the conjunctivae of thirty-nine eyes were sterile, but only that such small portion of the se- cretion as was removed by the platinum loop was sterile. In the fifty-three tubes containing bacteria, some eight or ten different kinds of bacteria were found. In twenty-two viagra thailand online cases the staphylococcus epi- dermidis albus was present; in five cases pyogenes citreus; in one case pyogenes aureus; in one case the bacillus subtilis: in eight cases a large bacillus grow- ing with small delicate translucent colonies on agar, kind not identified; in one case viagra thailand online streptococcus pyo- genes. The sources from which these bacteria in- fected the conjunctiva; may perhaps be named as fol- lows in the order of importance: 1st. The edges of the lids and the mouths of the Meibomian glands. 2d. Uncleanly hands. 3d. The air. 4th. Infected nasal fossae. In the case of the normal conjunctiva the last is probably not an important source of infection, since the current of secretion is constantly downward into the nose. Bach, after injecting cultures of bacteria into the nasal fossae, was unable to find that they ever made their way into the conjunctival viagra buying cheap sac. Of the many kinds of bacteria (twenty-six species) which have been found in the normal conjunctiva, only three have been proved to be pathogenic to man. These are the staphylococcus pyogenes aureus, the staphylococcus albus, and the streptococcus pyogenes. It is obvious that the mere presence of even these in the normal conjunctiva does no harm. A bouillon culture viagra buying cheap of viagra thailand online the staphylococcus aureus has been dropped into the conjunctival sac of man without producing inflammation (Bach), and even in injured eyes these bacteria often seem to do no harm, as may be seen from some later experiments in which the staphylococ- cus aureus was found in considerable numbers in the dressings of eyes which had been operated on for cata- ract and vet no suppuration occurred after the opera- tion. But in spite of these facts it is well to remem- ber that a viagra thailand online purulent infiltration of the cornea and panophthalmitis result when the staphylococcus au- reus is inoculated upon the surface of the cornea of a rabbit by scratching it with an infected needle; and also that after paracentesis of the cornea of a rabbit with an instrument infected with the staphylococcus 1 Read before the section on ophthalmology of the New York Academy of Medicine, October 21, 1S95. aureus, panophthalmitis viagra buying cheap develops in thirty hours. The same result occurs also at the end of seventy-two hours even with the staphylococcus albus. Moreover, in man the staphylococcus aureus and albus seem to play an important part in many disastrous processes occurring in the eye. Thus, viagra buying cheap the aureus seems to be a very important viagra thailand online if not the sole factor in many cases of panophthalmitis and phlyctenular conjunctivitis. These two series of facts illustrating the harmful- ness and harmlessness of the staphylococcus aureus and albus can be harmonized only by referring them to a varying vitality of tissues in different patients or to a varying virulence of the bacteria. Next an attempt was made to determine whether age influenced the kind and number of bacteria in the