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The models are particularly useful in the training of nurses. A further advantage in their use is the fat : that they may be kept obstetrically clean and may be used at the bedside or in the obstetrical clinic. While something has been done in this field, much remains; for example, models of uteri of known pe- riods of gestation and of pelvic deformities, viagra price chennai which by their interchange do not a little to raise the standard of obstetric teaching. Models are not in any sense to replace bedside in- struction. They are purely auxiliaries to instruction in its various forms, and care must be exercised in their use. They viagra price chennai undoubtedly lend a new interest to many points otherwise obscure and dry. The natural size buy viagra dose of the object should always be reproduced or a wrong impression may be conveyed. Diagrams, charts, and blackboard illustrations are unsatisfactory and tiresome to the student, and can never be made to impart the practical knowledge buy viagra dose obtainable with the aid of a few selected models. The several varieties of aids to obstetric teaching- are, for convenience, divided into five classes: I. Plaster Models. -As such, these have a very limited field of application on account of weight and brittleness. Plaster is chiefly useful in securing im- pressions, which are then reproduced in other ways. II. Paper Reproductions of Clay and Plaster Models. The method of preparation used is buy viagra dose that pro- posed by W. G. Thompson, which is briefly as follows: A clay or plaster model is covered viagra price chennai by a layer of small strips of newspaper (two by four) previously mois- tened. On this single layer are rapidly placed suc- cessive coverings of the same paper dipped in glue. In large models strengthened, such as wire, gauze. cheese cloth, etc., are introduced, and the top layer is laid smoothly to give an even surface. It is removed entire or in section, a backing added, and several coats of paint or varnish applied. Webster's fro/en sections were reproduced in this way by enlarging photographs of the cuts on tissue buy viagra dose paper, modelling through this in clay, and overlaying the paper strips as described. Transverse and sagittal sections and round objects may be modelled in this way, the latter to show the size and shape of the uterus in various stages of pregnancy. If casts can be taken from gravid uteri after death, so much the better, for they can then be exchanged among teachers and museums. A few of the uses to which paper models may be put are to show the height and shape of the fundus and lower uterine segment, placental insertion, physiology and pathology of buy viagra dose pregnancy, mesial sections of the uterus, the curve of the parturient canal. It is possibly best not to attempt reproduction in paper of any but the grosser frozen sections. A viagra price chennai model of uterus and contained ovum was not altogether satisfactory. For such illustrations, as much can be accomplished by diagram. Models representing in- volution, position, and relationships of puerperal uteri from Webster's sections are, however, of use not only in demonstrating the physiology but the pathology of the puerperium. Rupture of the vagina and uterus, their relations, and the greater clanger of infection when the tear involves vagina as well as uterus, viagra price chennai may thus be shown. III. Composition Models. The author uses as a cheap substitute for rubber, modellers' and plasterers' composition of glue. Its application seems limited to a series of cervices in different stages of dilatation. The mixture finally adopted was of Cooper's Ai glue and glycerin, the proportion determined by the flexi- bility desired. The glue is soaked in water, the latter being re- moved by viagra price chennai filtration, and the glue melted over a water bath. Glycerin is added and the mass boiled to ex- pel the remaining water. The time required depends on the size of the mass and amount of contained water. When ready to pour the mass should be of thick, creamy consistency. Any desired color of aniline may be added in alcoholic solution. The mould is prepared by taking a negative model of the buy viagra dose lower segment of the uterus 1 for example) ; this is covered with clay to the required thickness and a core is formed by running in plaster and allow-ing it to harden. The clay is removed, core and negative mould carefully shellacked, oiled, and fastened together. The glue, not too hot, is then poured in and allowed to cool. It may be removed in six hours. In case the models shrink and become hard, they may be remelted and fresh glue added. They will then have less tendency to shrink. The lower uterine segment, mechanism of dilatation with gradual disap- pearance of the supravaginal part of cervix, are viagra price chennai some of the conditions capable of reproduction in composi- tion. (The author here took occasion to indicate his preference for bimanual over digital and instrumental dilatation of the os.) The models demonstrate the dangers of ordinary digital and manual dilatation and of breech extraction through an imperfectly dilated os, incomplete extension of the head, etc. IV. Miscellaneous Models and Aids. These in- clude metal and leather models not classifiable under 8io MEDICAL RECORD. [June 6, viagra price chennai 1896 other heads. The first offered is a vertical mesial sec- tion of the bony pelvis in aluminium, viagra price chennai mounted by a hand screw on a blackboard, and the whole set on a tripod. There is scarcely an obstetric or gynecologi- cal condition that cannot be shown with it in con- nection wth puppets, uteri, and chalk. The complete