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13 RECENT LITERATURE PERTAINING TO VITAMINES; THEIR APPLICATION IN INFANT FEEDING.* Br LOUIS FISCHER, M.D.. NEW YORK. The term vitamine is used to designate the group of substances in the animal diet which are present in minute traces, whose nature and chemical con- stitution are unknown, and whose absence will re suit in a series of viagra sildenafil prescription pathological changes which can only be overcome by brand viagra purchase addition of these essential factors. The name is simply a class designation, and is used as such viagra sildenafil prescription (A. B. Macallum). Since the publication of Funk's book on the vita- mines in 1912, research has been stimulated, so that a large number of scientists, amongst whom Bradden, Cooper,' Mendel, Seidell, 3 Goldberger, Williams, and Vedder 3 should be mentioned — nearly all have confirmed the results of Funk. During the last five years our knowledge of the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates has been considerably enriched, and we have learnt why we have had so many feeding failures. Our knowledge of the internal secretions has enlightened us in many ways, likewise the discovery of the amino-acids and the viagra sildenafil prescription lipoids; their role in the diges- tive process are all new and valuable factors in in- fant feeding, but, they have failed to solve the problem. We have learned that just as we find some foods high or low in fat and proteins, so we find some foods high and others low in vitamine; therefore, in giving a mixed diet we give a normal amount of vitamine, although in the preparation of various foods the vitamine is frequently abstracted or de- stroyed. Many cases of malnutrition are met with where large quantities of food have been consumed but poorly assimiliated. The faulty metabolism of the fat, or protein, or carbohydrate shows that some- thing brand viagra purchase was lacking. We have learned that unless the food ingested contains sufficient vitamine there will result partial starvation. It is a well known fact that the too exclusive use of ordinary white flour and of most carbohydrate foods such as sugar, hominy, tapioca, sago, and the starches, and certain kinds of cornmeal will pro- due polyneuritis in fowls, and beriberi in man. The deficiency diseases, especially scurvy, are fre- quently found in institutions where the above diets have been rigidly enforced and the antiscorbutic factors such as the fresh meats, fresh fruit juices, fresh milk, and especially fresh vegetables, with- drawn. Funk experimented with autolyzed yeast and found that when 3 per cent, of yeast is added to food given to white rats, growth was stimulated. According to McCollum, Simmonds, and Pitz,' when young rats are fed a mixture of 60 parts of brand viagra purchase wheat embryo and 40 of dextrin, a mixture which furnishes about 20 per cent, of protein, very slow growth takes place, and the animals may live for 4 months or more without loss of weight. The addition of calcium lactate (2 per cent.) to this food mixture will, at any period of their growth *Read before the Section on Diseases of Children, American Medical Association, June 6, 1917. suspension, induce a noticeable increase in body weight. Although yeast has been extensively used for feeding cattle viagra sildenafil prescription for a number of years, its use for human consumption has been suggested only re- cently, during the war, owing to the scarcity of meat. As a meat substitute it was strongly recom- mended by Schottelius'' who has used it in quantities of 50 to 75 gm. daily, in addition to the ordinary diet, and claims viagra sildenafil prescription that it is well utilized in the human body. Funk's results show that young rats can live on yeast as the sole nitrogen source for quite a long while, although it has not yet been proven whether they can subsist on it indefinitely. According to Funk" a definite relationship exists between the onset of certain deficiency diseases and the amount of carbohydrates consumed. This has since been corroborated by Braddon and Cooper.' It has been known for some time to those who have studied beriberi from the clinical standpoint brand viagra purchase that, with an increase in the consumption of polished rice, the onset brand viagra purchase of the disease can be hastened. This was attributed to the presence of toxic viagra sildenafil prescription substances in the viagra sildenafil prescription rice. It was also known that the deficiency diseases occur when proprietary foods consisting chiefly of starch, make up the bulk of the dietary. By actual experiments on animals, Funk" was able to ascertain that "by decreasing or increasing the quantity of polished rice or even of pure starch, beriberi can be produced slowly or quickly as de- sired. It has also been found that in beriberi the blood sugar is increased, especially in those brand viagra purchase cases in which large percentages of starch are given in the diet. brand viagra purchase Occasionally in the literature clinical data may be found referring to the increase of blood sugar in certain daficiency diseases as in scurvy, but the matter has not been studied systematically, and no data can be found relating to blood sugar in acute beriberi or pellagra occurring in man. It appears that there is a very definite relationship between the vitamine present in the food and the